Adjusting Terrain for Miniatures Bases

Antenocite’s Workshop’s post on how big should doors be, covered the sizes for 18mm, 15mm, 10mm, and 6mm miniatures. I wanted to do the same for 25mm, 28mm & 30mm miniatures, but to include buildings, windows, and other common objects as well. Adapting Figure Scale from Wikipedia I’ve built a reference table, but as I noted in a previous post this is not exact.

Scale Figure Ht mm/foot
1:61 30 mm 5 mm/ft
1:64 28 mm 4.76 mm/ft
1:73.2 25 mm 4.16 mm/ft
1:76 25 mm (old) 4 mm/ft

Now the only problem is the base the miniature is on. it’s a standard 3 mm addition to all the heights, the door article explains the why. So I’ll be adding 3 mm to all the heights , below,

Wall height

Most rooms tend to have an 8 foot (2438.4 mm), 10 foot (3048 mm), or 12 foot (3657. mm) ceiling.

Scale 8 ft Ceiling 10 ft Ceiling 12 ft Ceiling
1:61 43 mm 53 mm 63 mm
1:64 41 mm 51 mm 60 mm
1:73.2 36 mm 45 mm 53 mm
1:76 35 mm 43 mm 51 mm

Door sizes

Looking at the standard 2040 mm high by 820 mm wide door, the numbers boil down to.

Scale Height Width
1:61 36 mm 13 mm
1:64 35 mm 13 mm
1:73.2 31 mm 11 mm
1:76 30 mm 11 mm


Windows tend to align with the top of the doors, so use the number above. The common height above ground is 3 feet (914.4 mm). The widths vary a great deal, with windows range from 19¼ in (488 mm) wide up to 69¾ in (1770 mm) wide.

Scale Height Width
1:61 18 mm 8 mm - 29 mm
1:64 17 mm 8 mm - 28 mm
1:73.2 15 mm 7 mm - 24 mm
1:76 15 mm 7 mm - 23 mm

Tables & Workbenches

Scale Height
1:61 14 mm - 23 mm
1:64 13 mm - 22 mm
1:73.2 12 mm - 19 mm
1:76 12 mm - 19 mm


Scale Height
1:61 9 mm - 11 mm
1:64 8 mm - 11 mm
1:73.2 8 mm - 10 mm
1:76 8 mm - 10 mm

Above are common sizes for some other common wargames figures, but it’s not everything. For all of the tables of data, I’ve worked from modern Anthropometric and Ergonomic sources. Which is great of modern and near future terrain features. But when creating objects for medieval (or fantasy) you will need to consider historical references or to create the look right through educated guess work. And for Sci-fi, you will have to stick to the design principles by considering it’s function and form. (ie what it will be used for and how to make it look futuristic)

The principle is the calculate the scaled height of the object or feature and then add 3 mm for the miniature base to create the illusion of the correct scale. But do not add the 3 mm to the width of objects as it will distort the size when compared to the miniature.

Miniature Scale, Rescaling and design

What is scale and why is it important for miniatures? It seams like an obvious question, but with miniature gaming it is important to know the scale of what you are creating, how to best manipulate scale to your advantage and to know how much space the gaming table will take up.

With miniature gaming there are two numbers to consider, the scale and the figure height. The scale is the ratio the object is shrunk and the figure height is the approximate height of a 173 cm male (5′ 8” in the imperial system). Some of the common scales are 5 mm (1:300) or 6 mm (1:285) used for micro-armour games such as Battletech and Epic. Along with the 25 mm & 28 mm using in RPGS, like D&D or Pathfinder, and Wargames, like Warhammer40K, Warmachine, or Infinity.

However, this is where things can get complex. GW in their aim to make their minis more impressive made the 25 mm Heroic scale, which is slightly larger that 25 mm and then did the same with the 28 mm Heroic, has lead to some variations in scale. This has been common among miniature companies Even Wikipedia does not agree with it’s self with with 28 mm being 1:56 and 1:64.

There are two useful number to have when designing miniatures or terrain. The first is the figure height, which can be found by dividing the height of a average person (1730 mm) by the scale. And the second, is the scaled foot, which is found by dividing a foot (304.8 mm) by the scale.


It’s all about scale includes these two scale conversion charts (below), and covers why scale is important. In the end the only question should be does it look right and for 28mm anything between 1:56 up to 1:72 should be ok.

Converting between common miniature scales.

Converting between common miniature scales.

A simpler conversion chart with train and miniature scales.
A simpler conversion chart with train and miniature scales.

Designing to scale

Since we are designing miniatures and models for gaming. We need to look at Anthropometric, or the measurement of humans. There is a wealth of information in this field, although most of it is only useful in defining the common sizes of people or our miniatures. It’s the application of this idea, Ergonomics, that becomes very useful because it forms the foundations used in the design of products (industrial design), clothing design, houses (architecture), among any others design fields. So in a nut shell everything we use is designed for the human scale and changing scales by guess work can lead to time wasted on a modelling project.

it is also worth looking at the designs of the experts, such as Bauhaus, a German school of design founded in the 1920s that has influenced the modern world. The most well known item to come out of the school is the Bauhaus chair.

Of all the chairs to come out of the Bauhaus, this is the one that commonly comes to mind. Designed my Marcel Breuer, the Wasilly chair is a mix of steel and leather, using no more material than is absolutely needed, while providing maximum comfort. It's a design you'll still find in homes today.
The Bauhaus Chair

Scaling Vehicles

The next step up from everyday objects tend to be vehicle, and Antenociti’s Workshop covers the subject in such excellent design in If I base my figures how big should my vehicles be, that why would I try to do it here.

Also I’d be considering the rescaling tables above to hunt out die-cast kits for cars, and even scale model trains for terrain and buildings.

Scaling Building

Finally there are building, which are usually designed around people and sometimes vehicles. When working on architecture the placement of Windows & Door, and how big should they be.

And finally, if you add a base to your miniature is changes the look of everything.


The Process for Designing Terrain

How do you go about designing good miniature terrain to conduct battles on? Is there a process you can or should follow? When trying to answer these questions I tend to examine what others do and then apply it to my own design process.

Below is the design process that follows when creating their boards. The finished products are wonderful set pieces for miniature games, however, as I said earlier I’d prefer small tile-able terrain that is easily packed away. However, the design on paper, refine on computer, before committing to physical thing is a excellent fundamental practice.

I tend to start with sketches on paper, as I build up the idea. That way bad or ill considered ideas can be left, and any potential problems can be found before building a large expensive mistake.

It’s something I remember from Engineering, that for a $1000 product if you catch a defect after the sale stage it costs $2500 in product recall and such. But in the design stage it’s $0.03 

Design Considerations

So it pays well to deeply consider how to design anything, and in this case miniature terrain. They can be broadly split in to the two groups of form and function. Form or Aesthetics is the consideration of the look of an object, where Function is more focuses on it’s operation and use. A good place to start are Design elements and principles, and the Engineering Design Process.

There are a bunch of things you should think about before making or buying terrain. These questions should be focused on things like;

  • How you plan on using it?
  • What your budget it?
  • The time needed to make it or acquire the parts?
  • What scale of miniature is it designed for?
  • And others I can not think of at this point…

So for this project I’m setting out what I’m aiming for.

  1. Storage. Do to limited space I need to be able to easily store the parts
  2. Quality. I want have it look good and to make good stuff, because If I can help it, I don’t want to do it all again, or to spend time repairing it.
  3. Scale. I play Warmachine, Warhmmer40K, and Patherfinder/D&D amoung others. All of which tend to be 25-28mm scale.
  4. Variability. I like to be able to mix-up my terrain to suit the individual situation or scenario, because I get bored easily with the same tactical battle.

Designing Tiling Terrain

I’ve been reading Observations of the Fox’s posts about Hexagonal Geomorphs. I’ve looked in this direction before and have played games like Magic Realm (on Boardgamegeek), Battletech, and Star Fleet Battles. And I created a SFB Hex map a few year back, which is up on deviantArt. The Hex-map technique allows an easy simplification of the game map into discrete elements, while allowing more options than the square grid-map. However, with a shift in miniature war-gaming to the inch-based measuring system, using hexes just feels like old times, in both a good and a bad way.

Ultimate Table Top Terrain collection of Hexagonal Terrain does make me drool and shows a different way of using hexes. As large scale terrain pieces that interlock to allow the miniature battles to happen over them, without binding the game to the hex grid. It also allows the army to be set up on one hex for transport, and for the terrain to be (relativity) easily packeted away at the end of the game. Good for places where space is a premium.

So, here is a summary of Michael Wenman‘s series on Geomorphs and helps explore the idea of terrain design for miniature games;

It’s also worth examining ways of making interlocking Sci-Fi walls, which sit on flat cardboard floor tiles. This technique of using card pegs or wedges is one of the simplest I’ve seen. In my 3D Printed designs I’ve started with small pegs that clip into place, but found that they tended to break off, and I’ve moved onto a similar technique of using interlocking joints.

It is worth noting that what ever system you want to use that it fits you needs. For myself I will be looking for the following;

  • Multiple configurations to allow many scenarios to be created. Si I’ll be looking at pieces.
  • Can be easily packed away and transported. So it will most likely be 1 to 2 foot in size.


Ulthwé Wave Serpent

As stated before I’m fan of the Eldar (aka Elves IN SPACE!) Anyone who’s seen the original The Muppets TV series will know how it sounds, and for those that don’t there is youtube…

I like the idea of the Eldar as much as the visual look of the miniatures with their runes of power. However, I prefer to avoid the 40K game. The way the game is played in short shape battles with defined boarders and objectives does not suit an ancient race slowly dying out wondering the stars on their own craftworlds. Any species with a long history knows that, if you meet strength in opposition it will end in destruction. Any psychic beings worth their minds does not engage in direct conflict, but subtly redirect their opponents into their weapons, or into other monsters. Regardless of my thoughts on the game the miniatures look cool and the few I’ve painted look good.

Ulthwé Wave Serpent with Jetbike support

Ulthwé Wave Serpent with three Jetbike in toe.

Ulthwé Wave Serpent
Close up of the Ulthwé Wave Serpent looking at the engines and intakes.
Close up of a Ulthwé Wave Serpent
Close up of the Ulthwé Wave Serpent with a focus on the back hatch and engines.

Weather as a Weapon

This is where Powerful Wizards, Fanatical Priests and Mad Scientists come into their own, like Prospero in Shakespeare‘s The Tempest, these character archetypes are able to manipulate the weather like a weapon to drive other lesser creatures before them.

From Terry Pratchett’s man in copper armour shouting, “All gods are bastards”, to the proverbial Wizard throwing lighting from on high, or the thunder battle in the Misty Mountains of Middle Earth.

Weather can set up clear consequences in the environment for the players content with. Beyond the basic plot point that weather adds to an adventure.  It can create active dangers for the characters to face.

Weather as a matter of survival

Storms can create landslides or avalanches, especially when placed on an eroded hillside. Floods can drive people apart with the threat of drowning. Snow storms also create an immediate challenge to the character’s survival.

Each of the above ideas could be developed into a natural part of an adventure, by introducing the idea the players early on with some annoying rain that soaks their cloths. Expanded on with an afternoon storm allowing a challenging opponent to escape (Tracking rolls anyone?). The next day continues with more rain. And finally, a rooftop battle during that evening’s lighting storm.

Or for example you can take the scene in The Empire Strikes Back, when Luke faces Darth Vader. Although Vader throws objects around using the Force, he could equally be using magic winds to bash his opponent with many flying objects.

Moving away from the rain & wet you can push the weather in the other direction with a heat wave, high winds, and other conditions conducive to raging fire.

It’s nice playing with the extremes of weather, but this can get repetitive in a campaign. So it is also best to use sparingly for maximum effect, and to keep it low key most of the time. A light rain can make the path or rocks slipper, or a hot day will tire fighters quickly (dehydration?). Finding a warm camp-site during a cold night.

Weather in Sci-Fi settings

In the future, the weather on the Earth is likely to be the same. Except for other planets or extreme modification due to cataclysmic events or climate change. For inspiration you can look at IFLScience’s Luminance beach

Beautiful Glowing Beaches Look Like Something From Another World
Beautiful Glowing Beaches Look Like Something From Another World

The corrosive, Acid Rain will create unsightly marks on cloth and can make quick work of unprotected metals. Surface elements like Methane seas turn a passive terrain feature into potentially explosive fun for the players to work around.


Stormblade Infantry Bases

I’m currently working on a set of Stormblade Infantry for the local Journeyman league I’m part of. Here’s a breakdown of the bases.

  1. A coat of Charred Brown (72.045)
  2. Lines of Leather Brown (72.040)
  3. A layer of Secret Weapon’s Brown Fine Ballast.
  4. Dots of Charred Brown, Leather Brown, or Tan (72.066) mixed 1:1 with water
Stormblade Infantry bases
Stormblade Infantry bases

More when I finish the Stormblades…

Using Weather Effects in Role Playing Games

After reading D&DPPF’s post about weather effects & conditions , I started to think about the various effects that you could inflict on the players. Role Master has a number random of weather charts, and I’ve seen a few systems for dealing with desert survival. However, I find it’s best to avoid making up additional rules unless necessary. Wikipedia provides a starting point with articles on the various forms of extreme weather and disasters.

Weather as background

This appears to be the default for most campaigns I’ve played in or GM’d. It is an easy option to add flavour without too much extra effort. A quick roll on a table and feed the result into the daily description of the characters adventures.

However, looking at it historically, human cultures are dependent on the environment for nearly everything, with the local weather being a critical part of that. If you look at the production of food, textiles, or building materials like wood, they are all created by the regular rhythms of the seasons. So as such weather should feature as a character in your stories.

Weather as a complication

While terrain provides a useful backdrop for the characters to work with, around and through. Weather builds on this transforming a simple situation in to a complex one. Making it interesting to play it out, because the weather can force the characters into action.

Rain can provide a little different to a sunny day, changing the atmosphere from light to foreboding or miserable, until you think about the effect the rain has on fragile items, like scrolls, or electronics. What about the priceless painting?  Cloth can absorb a lot of water making wet clothing an extra weighty challenge, and it’s worth noting that wool clothing can be the worst.

Then there is the effect of all that water on the ground, creating wet, slippery and muddy conditions for walking, running  and fighting in. The sound of rain can conceal many foes, or its falling will obliterate tracks. Something as simple as crossing the river will be complicated by flash flooding brought on by the weather or an evil cleric.

High Winds are another complication to a situation that can change the game. Dust gets blown about, along with tumble weeds, rubbish and small children, reducing visibility. Perception-wise sound tends to be distorted or lost in a powerful breeze. In combat, the wind makes archery difficult and more random. Climbing becomes treacherous. Rope bridges, roof tops and cliffs become launch pads.

Storms, CyclonesHurricanes and Typhoons. Depending on the location, the name for these extreme weather events changes. However, the intent is the same combining the above two in to a cacophony of terror from falling tree limbs, ruined building and the like. It’s a time where sensible folk are inside hiding from the raging.

Lightning Storm. Oh! come on, this is just too easy. It is the most obvious, clichéd and direct form of weather complication.  The classic of a wizard on the mountainside throwing down lighting upon the small hamlet, or a ship at sea been thrown about by the raging sea. A storm of this scale should be a terrifying experience.

D&DPPF’s post about weather conditions, gives the great example of a character party seeking cover. After finding shelter they learn a lot about the local area from other travellers and later discover… Well you can read their post.

On the quieter side of things Fog, Mist, or low cloud has a multitude of effects beyond the obscuring of vision. A heavy fog slowly soaks into the skin and cloths, it can muffle all manner of sounds, and with bright-lights can blind. Anyone who’s driven at night through fog will warn you.

The cold in the form of Snow, Hail (Freezing rain) or Sleet/Ice can lead to musical outbursts (ie Frozen’s Let it go). The eyes can suffer Snow-blindness or Photokeratitis caused by too much UV. Hail can damage people and property. And all three of the above conditions will cause slippery terrain similar to rain above, but colder.

A Heatwave can be thought of as the reverse of rain, but there is more to it than that. A short heatwave of a few days can cause illness or death in the old and weak, wither plants, or dry out water sources. A long heatwave or drought is going to destroy crops, dry out vegetation and provide the conditions for dust storms and firestorms.

If you have suggestion for weather conditions I’ve missed or great stories about how they’ve been used in a game, then please comment below.

Intro to Warmachine and Hordes

After a life time of avoiding Warhammer 40K I did play for about 6 months and like most I like the fluff and model design, but the gaming group I joined moved on to War Machine. The following thread does sum up my thoughts. I’m enjoying the painting of models and the tactical game.  To get a better idea of What is the game like, which provides a good summary with an overview of the factions in the Hordes & War Machine games. What they play like, covers the factions along with common misconceptions.

In an intensely tactical game like War Machine there are a number of tactical considerations for the starting wargamer that are important.

  • Whether to go first?
    • Going first can jam the board, and get the first charges.
    • Going second can choose the best terrainreact to your opponent’s deployment choices, start closer to the scenario scoring elements, and start scoring first.
  • Model placement to remain with command range, but avoid too many blast causalities, and handle charges.
  • The measurement of distances. When you can measure and what to look for.


Warmachine & Hordes – Quickstart rules to get you started with twin games of Warmachine and Hordes. There is also a Journeyman League, which introduces the game in easy stages in the form of a friendly competition. Also check out the tips for a successful Journeyman League.

Battle College – A great resources to get an overview of a model or unit with additional thoughts on it’s use. Also look at 1d4Chan, which has many pages looking at the tactics of the various factions